# 8 2 Calculations for Direct Materials and Labor Managerial Accounting

Figure 10.4 “Direct Materials Variance Analysis for Jerry’s Ice Cream” shows how to calculate the materials price and quantity variances given the actual results and standards information. Review this figure carefully before moving on to the next section where these calculations are explained in detail. The amount by which actual cost differs from standard cost is called a variance. When actual costs are less than the standard cost, a cost variance is favorable.

• An unfavorable outcome means the actual costs related to materials were more than the expected (standard) costs.
• GR Spring and Stamping, Inc., a supplier of stampings to automotive companies, was generating pretax profit margins of about 3 percent prior to the increase in steel prices.
• The variance is unfavorable because more materials were used than the standard quantity allowed to complete the job.
• If the actual quantity of materials used is less than the standard quantity used at the actual production output level, the variance will be a favorable variance.
• Variances are changes to the costs an organization has budgeted, they can be either favorable or unfavorable.

When you calculate the variance, you’re comparing actual material usage to what you expected. It could be that the expectation you created in the product development process is askew. The direct material cost variances including material price variance, material usage variance, material mix variance and material yield variance. The following chart depicts the divisions of Direct Material Cost Variances very clearly. The materials quantity variance calculation presented previously shows the actual quantity used in production of 399,000 pounds is lower than the expected (budgeted) quantity of 420,000 pounds. Clearly, this is favorable because the actual quantity used was lower than the expected (budgeted) quantity.

## Price Variance

The standard cost of actual quantity purchased is calculated by multiplying the standard price with the actual quantity. This amount will represent the expected expenditure on direct material for this many units. The difference between this actual expenditure and the actual expenditure on direct material is the direct materials price variance. The standard materials cost of any product is simply the standard quantity How to Compute Direct Materials Variances of materials that should be used multiplied by the standard price that should be paid for those materials. Actual costs may differ from standard costs for materials because the price paid for the materials and/or the quantity of materials used varied from the standard amounts management had set. These two factors are accounted for by isolating two variances for materials—a price variance and a usage variance. When actual costs exceed the standard costs, a cost variance is unfavorable. Do not automatically equate favorable and unfavorable variances with good and bad. The difference between the expected and actual cost incurred on purchasing direct materials, expressed as a positive or negative value, evaluated in terms of currency. The unfavorable labor rate variance is not necessarily caused by paying employees more wages than they are entitled to receive.

## What is the formula to calculate the direct materials price variance?

Direct Materials Price Variance is under the responsibility of the purchasing department. These are the differences in the cost per unit of materials set by management and the cost per unit of materials https://accounting-services.net/cash-definition-and-meaning/ actually incurred for the purchase. Standard cost has to be calculated with reference to standard quantity for actual output. In such case, the information regarding standard output to be ignored.

### What is the formula for calculating a direct materials efficiency variance?

To calculate a direct materials efficiency variance, the formula is (actual quantity used × standard price) − (standard quantity allowed × standard price).

For auto suppliers that use hundreds of tons of steel each year, this had the unexpected effect of increasing expenses and reducing profits. For example, a major producer of automotive wheels had to reduce its annual earnings forecast by \$10,000,000 to \$15,000,000 as a result of the increase in steel prices. Still unsure about material and labor variances, watch this Note Pirate video to help. GR Spring and Stamping, Inc., a supplier of stampings to automotive companies, was generating pretax profit margins of about 3 percent prior to the increase in steel prices. To make a batch of carrot cakes, you expect to use 60 pounds of carrots.

## Module 10: Cost Variance Analysis

Figure 10.35 shows the connection between the direct materials price variance and direct materials quantity variance to total direct materials cost variance. Because the company uses 30,000 pounds of paper rather than the 28,000-pound standard, it loses an additional \$20,700. In this case, the actual price per unit of materials is \$9.00, the standard price per unit of materials is \$7.00, and the actual quantity used is 0.25 pounds. This is an unfavorable outcome because the actual price for materials was more than the standard price.

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